New Release Books by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Committee on Calorie Requirements

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Committee on Calorie Requirements is the author of Food Systems Profile – Nepal (2022), Foodborne antimicrobial resistance (2022), Business models along the poultry value chain in Kenya (2022), National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in Ethiopia (2021) and other 396 books.

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Food Systems Profile – Nepal

Food Systems Profile – Nepal
This document, entitled Profile of Food Systems, presents in ten pages a summary of the main problems of Nepal's food systems, and possible solutions to make them more sustainable and inclusive. The result of a systemic analysis and consultation of all stakeholders in the systems, it is part of an evaluation supported by the European Union, FAO and CIRAD in 50 countries.

Foodborne antimicrobial resistance

Foodborne antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious global health threat and a food safety issue of primary concern. Governments and international organizations have recognized that the issue has to be approached in a multidisciplinary manner, addressing animal, plant and human health as well as the environment under the One Health approach. This publication brings together the three Codex texts, two guidelines and a code of practice, that will support governments in designing and running a successful strategy to tackle foodborne AMR.

Business models along the poultry value chain in Kenya

Business models along the poultry value chain in Kenya
This study characterizes the business model and the enterprise budget of farmers, traders, processors and retailers along the poultry value chain in Kiambu and Nairobi City Country. Results show that all poultry businesses are profitable and avail resources to start adopting biosecurity practices that minimize the introduction and spread of pathogens in animals. However, while producers have some incentives to adopt biosecurity practices, as avoiding and controlling diseases is essential for their profitability, traders, processors and retailers have little if any incentives to adopt biosecurity practices as they keep birds or poultry meat only for a limited period of time and the market for poultry products do not differentiate between safe and unsafe products. It is essential that animal health services systematically provide services beyond the farm gate to minimize the public health risks along the poultry value chain.

National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in Ethiopia

National agrifood systems and COVID-19 in Ethiopia
This report describes: (i) policy measures enacted by the Government of Ethiopia to contain the spread of the virus; (ii) policies and measures to stabilize the functioning of agri-food systems; (iii) potential effects of policies on agri-food systems and vulnerable groups. Finally, the profile also assesses longer-term options for agri-food system policies and investments in Ethiopia so as to make them more resilient.

Somalia – Shocks, agricultural livelihoods and food security

Somalia – Shocks, agricultural livelihoods and food security
This report shares an analysis of the effects of natural and man-made shocks in Somalia’s the agri-food system. It analyses the results of a field assessment conducted in August 2021. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is implementing a project to contribute to data collection and analysis linked to shocks affecting agricultural livelihoods and food security, in order to inform evidence-based programming in selected countries. The objective is to assess the effects of these shocks on the agri-food system, which includes crops, livestock and fishing, food supply, livelihoods and food security of rural populations. Information is collected from primary sources of the production process: producer households, traders or marketers, inputs suppliers, extension officers and other key informants. This report covers the third round of data collected through the monitoring system in Somalia. A first round was collected in 2020, followed by an initial report published early in 2021. The report on the second round was published in September 2021. The report was made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents of this report are the sole responsibility of FAO and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States of America Government.

Understanding the impact of planted forest on smallholder livestock farmers and their livelihoods in the Greater Mekong Subregion

Understanding the impact of planted forest on smallholder livestock farmers and their livelihoods in the Greater Mekong Subregion
Significant forest change in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has resulted in deforestation of primary forests and expansion of plantation forests. Although plantation forest development benefits rural communities through income generation and employment opportunities, there have been negative impacts, including reductions in livestock grazing land and collection of non-timber forest products. This study analysed the association between primary forests, plantation forests, grazing areas and large ruminant populations in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Viet Nam. The report showed that livestock populations in the GMS are dynamic and have been under pressure due to enhanced trade and demand in red meat in China and Viet Nam, with a generally positive association between planted forest areas and populations of cattle and buffalo in Lao PDR and Viet Nam indicated. Tree plantations were an important source of income and generally perceived as having a positive impact on rural livelihoods, despite negatively impacts in grazing land availability. It is recommended that integrative approaches that include the collection of household level data to assess the impact on smallholder livelihoods and the collection of regional level data to capture forest changes in future forest assessments, enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the association between primary forests and planted forest on smallholder livestock production. Silvopastoral models have the potential to provide more viable and sustainable alternatives to the current forestry and livestock production models, supporting the transformation to more sustainable agriculture for better production, better environment, and sustainable development goals in GMS countries and beyond.

Climate change impacts on twenty major crop pests in Central Asia, the Caucasus and Southeastern Europe

Climate change impacts on twenty major crop pests in Central Asia, the Caucasus and Southeastern Europe
This research report for a regional study on the impacts of climate change on the spread of pests contributes to FAO’s normative work, as a milestone for 2020–2021 under the Regular Programme. The year 2020 was designated by the United Nations as the as the International Year of Plant Health (IYPH), with the aim of reducing crop loss from pests, which is estimated at 40 percent. In the current report, agricultural pests as any organism harmful to plants, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, insects, etc are defined by the authors. We include those that cause direct damage as well as disease-causing organisms. Climate change is projected to worsen crop losses by another 10–25 percent, which in some regions would emanate from associated pests. Central Asia, the Caucasus and Southeastern Europe are under the research area.

Multilocational dryland species trial in Uganda

Multilocational dryland species trial in Uganda
Many initiatives have supported the rapid expansion of commercial timber and bioenergy plantations in Uganda; but little has been done in dryland areas such as the semi-arid Karamoja sub-region. This has partly been attributed to the fact that establishing tree plantations in dryland areas is a challenge given the high temperatures and low soil moisture, exacerbated by insufficient information about suitable commercial plantation tree species for dryland afforestation and reforestation. There is scanty information on suitable tree species, potential growth rates and suitable silvicultural practices. Commercial plantations have also been affected by the emergence of new pests and diseases, putting at great risk investment in the sector, especially given that most forest plantations are exotic monocultures. Through the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS) phase III project, FAO in Uganda collaborated with the National Forestry Resources Research Institute (NaFORRI) to establish trials of dryland tree species at different locations. This brief summarises the findings of the study titled MULTILOCATIONAL DRYLAND SPECIES TRIAL IN UGANDA, which was the result of the collaboration between FAO and NaFORRI. This report will inform strategies and plans for promoting commercial forestry in dryland areas of the country such as Karamoja. NaFORRI is a constituent of the National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), with the national mandate to undertake research in all aspects of forestry in Uganda. SPGS III is funded by the European Union.

GFCM 2030 Strategy for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea

GFCM 2030 Strategy for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea
The GFCM 2030 Strategy for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture in the Mediterranean and Black Sea offers a common vision and guiding principles to achieve sustainable fisheries and aquaculture in the region, federating efforts to deliver on national, regional and global commitments. Building upon the progress made and concerted action between all stakeholders, it addresses the social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainability in order to build resilience to respond to global challenges. The GFCM 2030 Strategy upholds the heritage of fisheries and aquaculture as pillars for the livelihoods of coastal communities, championing a productive and sustainable food system that contributes to thriving economies and healthy ecosystems. It is articulated in five distinct targets that each contribute to this overarching vision for sustainability: Target 1 focuses on healthy seas and productive fisheries; Target 2 aims to ensure a level playing field to eradicate all illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing; Target 3 helps realise the potential of a growing aquaculture sector; Target 4 supports livelihoods through decent employment and fishers engagement; and Target 5 fosters capacity development through technical cooperation and efficient partnerships across the region. The GFCM 2030 Strategy addresses regional priorities while taking into account local needs and specificities through a subregional approach. Covering a ten-year span, the GFCM 2030 Strategy is aligned with a global agenda. The successful achievement of its targets relies on the commitment of the GFCM Membership in adopting and implementing relevant decisions and in supporting its overarching vision.

2021 Global food policy report: Transforming food systems after COVID-19

2021 Global food policy report: Transforming food systems after COVID-19
The coronavirus pandemic has upended local, national, and global food systems, and put the Sustainable Development Goals further out of reach. But lessons from the world’s response to the pandemic can help address future shocks and contribute to food system change. In the 2021 Global Food Policy Report, IFPRI researchers and other food policy experts explore the impacts of the pandemic and government policy responses, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged, and consider what this means for transforming our food systems to be healthy, resilient, efficient, sustainable, and inclusive. Chapters in the report look at balancing health and economic policies, promoting healthy diets and nutrition, strengthening social protection policies and inclusion, integrating natural resource protection into food sector policies, and enhancing the contribution of the private sector. Regional sections look at the diverse experiences around the world, and a special section on finance looks at innovative ways of funding food system transformation. Critical questions addressed include: - Who felt the greatest impact from falling incomes and food system disruptions caused by the pandemic? - How can countries find an effective balance among health, economic, and social policies in the face of crisis? - How did lockdowns affect diet quality and quantity in rural and urban areas? - Do national social protection systems such as cash transfers have the capacity to protect poor and vulnerable groups in a global crisis? - Can better integration of agricultural and ecosystem polices help prevent the next pandemic? - How did companies accelerate ongoing trends in digitalization and integration to keep food supply chains moving? - What different challenges did the pandemic spark in Asia, Africa, and Latin America and how did these regions respond?

Guidelines for the Control and Prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Wildlife Populations

Guidelines for the Control and Prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Wildlife Populations
The PPR Secretariat, the OIE Working Group on Wildlife, and the PPR Global Research and Expertise Network (GREN) have jointly developed these guidelines for PPR prevention, outbreak response, and control in wildlife, which can be used by countries to develop their PPR national strategic plans. These guidelines are intended to help countries in the development and implementation of PPR eradication programmes, including objectives, policies and strategies that can be adapted to the full range of national needs, and that facilitate the integration of the wildlife sector into the national strategic plan. Integration will enhance the conservation of wildlife populations, and facilitate management of diseases at the wildlife–livestock interface. Establishing a multisectoral coordination mechanism is essential to ensure good governance and effective collaboration in achieving PPR eradication goals. The purpose of this document is to provide a conceptual framework that can be tailored to a particular national and epidemiological context. In addition, these guidelines, while specific to PPR eradication, can be adapted for any disease at the wildlife–human–livestock interface.

2021 Global food policy report: Transforming food systems after COVID-19: Synopsis

2021 Global food policy report: Transforming food systems after COVID-19: Synopsis
The coronavirus pandemic has upended local, national, and global food systems, and put the Sustainable Development Goals further out of reach. But lessons from the world’s response to the pandemic can help address future shocks and contribute to food system change. In the 2021 Global Food Policy Report, IFPRI researchers and other food policy experts explore the impacts of the pandemic and government policy responses, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged, and consider what this means for transforming our food systems to be healthy, resilient, efficient, sustainable, and inclusive. Chapters in the report look at balancing health and economic policies, promoting healthy diets and nutrition, strengthening social protection policies and inclusion, integrating natural resource protection into food sector policies, and enhancing the contribution of the private sector. Regional sections look at the diverse experiences around the world, and a special section on finance looks at innovative ways of funding food system transformation. Critical questions addressed include: - Who felt the greatest impact from falling incomes and food system disruptions caused by the pandemic? - How can countries find an effective balance among health, economic, and social policies in the face of crisis? - How did lockdowns affect diet quality and quantity in rural and urban areas? - Do national social protection systems such as cash transfers have the capacity to protect poor and vulnerable groups in a global crisis? - Can better integration of agricultural and ecosystem polices help prevent the next pandemic? - How did companies accelerate ongoing trends in digitalization and integration to keep food supply chains moving? - What different challenges did the pandemic spark in Asia, Africa, and Latin America and how did these regions respond?

Looking at edible insects from a food safety perspective

Looking at edible insects from a food safety perspective
While insect consumption by humans or entomophagy has been traditionally practiced in various countries over generations and represents a common dietary component of various animal species (birds, fish, mammals), farming of insects for human food and animal feed is relatively recent. Production of this ‘mini-livestock’ brings with it several potential benefits and challenges. The objective of this document is to provide the reader with an overview of the various food safety issues that could be associated with edible insects. The intended audiences of this publication are food safety professionals, policymakers, researchers, insect producers as well as consumers. The regulatory frameworks that govern production, trade and consumption of insects in various regions are discussed. The document ends with elucidating some other major challenges, such as consumer acceptance and scaling up production, that the edible insect industry would need to overcome to have a more global reach.

Applying the degree of urbanisation — A methodological manual to define cities, towns and rural areas for international comparisons

release date: Mar 11, 2021
Applying the degree of urbanisation — A methodological manual to define cities, towns and rural areas for international comparisons
Applying the Degree of Urbanisation — A methodological manual to define cities, towns and rural areas for international comparisons has been produced in close collaboration by six organisations — the European Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHabitat), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and The World Bank. This manual develops a harmonised methodology to facilitate international statistical comparisons and to classify the entire territory of a country along an urban-rural continuum. The degree of urbanisation classification defines cities, towns and semi-dense areas, and rural areas. This first level of the classification may be complemented by a range of more detailed concepts, such as: metropolitan areas, commuting zones, dense towns, semi-dense towns, suburban or peri-urban areas, villages, dispersed rural areas and mostly uninhabited areas.The manual is intended to complement and not replace the definitions used by national statistical offices (NSOs) and ministries. It has been designed principally as a guide for data producers, suppliers and statisticians so that they have the necessary information to implement the methodology and ensure coherency within their data collections. It may also be of interest to users of subnational statistics so they may better understand, interpret and use official subnational statistics for taking informed decisions and policymaking.

2020 Global food policy report: Building inclusive food systems

2020 Global food policy report: Building inclusive food systems
Food systems are at a critical juncture—they are evolving quickly to meet growing and changing demand but are not serving everyone’s needs. Building more inclusive food systems can bring a wide range of economic and development benefits to all people, especially the poor and disadvantaged. IFPRI’s 2020 Global Food Policy Report examines the policies and investments and the growing range of tools and technologies that can promote inclusion. Chapters examine the imperative of inclusion, challenges faced by smallholders, youth, women, and conflict-affected people, and the opportunities offered by expanding agrifood value chains and national food system transformations. Critical questions addressed include: How can inclusive food systems help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and malnutrition? \What can be done to strengthen the midstream of food value chains to improve rural access to jobs, markets, and services? Will Africa’s food systems generate sufficient jobs for the growing youth population? How can women be empowered within food system processes, from household decisions to policymaking? Can refugees and other conflict-affected people be integrated into food systems to help them rebuild their lives? How can national food system transformations contribute to greater dietary diversity, food safety, and food quality for all? Regional sections look at how inclusion can be improved around the world in 2020 and beyond. The report also presents interesting trends revealed by IFPRI’s food policy indicators and datasets.

Global and regional food availability from 2000 to 2017 – An analysis based on Supply Utilization Accounts data

Global and regional food availability from 2000 to 2017 – An analysis based on Supply Utilization Accounts data
One of the main pillars of food security is food supply, which refers to the availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports. In this paper, we use quantities of commercialized foods from the Supply and Utilization Accounts (SUA) compiled by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to analyze trends in food available for consumption based on by region and country income level group. Results show that, in general, food groups available for consumption differ across income-level country groups. There are nonetheless evident regional trends. Low-income and lower-middle-income countries have a high reliance on staple foods, and only upper-middle-income countries and Asia have enough fruits and vegetables available to meet the FAO/World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of consuming a minimum of 400 grams per day. In addition, the availability of animal-source foods, as well as sugars and fats, overall is highest in high-income countries, but it is increasing fast in upper-middle-income countries.

Strategies for the promotion of conservation agriculture in Central Asia

Strategies for the promotion of conservation agriculture in Central Asia
The Proceedings of the Conference aims to compile the data collected during the Conference and archive for future. It is composed of 6 chapters. The chapter on keynote speeches include presentations of Mr Hafiz Muminjanov, Agricultural Officer at FAO headquarters, introducing Conservation Agriculture: a win-win option for food security, land management and livelihoods and of Mr Amir Kassam, Moderator of the FAO Global Platform for CA Community of a worldwide revolution of conservation agriculture.

International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management – Guidance on management of household pesticides

International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management – Guidance on management of household pesticides
The use of household pesticides to control pests and disease vectors in homes and gardens is common in high-income countries (HICs) and is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where such pesticides are often sold in local shops and informal markets for use by the general public. The human and environmental risks from the use of these products should not be underestimated. The incorrect use and improper storage and disposal of household pesticides, often due to the absence of any training in pesticide use or risks as well as poor understanding of label information, results in many poisoning and self-harm incidents every year.

Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products

Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products
The Codex Alimentarius, “the food code”, has a fundamental role in protecting consumers all around the world and ensuring fair practices in food trade. The Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products is the essential reference point for technical guidance on the harvesting, processing, transport and sale of fish and fishery products.

Advancing Effective Obesity Communications

release date: Jul 24, 2020
Advancing Effective Obesity Communications
On September 16, 2019, the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions of the Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a public workshop, Advancing Effective Obesity Communications, in Washington, DC. The workshop explored effective communication of obesity-related issues by providing an overview of the current communications environment and addressing the complexity of identifying key audiences and developing targeted messages. Speakers discussed communications strategies to reach specific intermediary audiences, such as the public, decision makers, and policy makers. The workshop also explored challenges in communicating about obesity issues, which include aligning the intended meaning of messages with an individual's perception of and response to those messages, addressing obesity bias and stigma through communications, and addressing misinformation. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions that occurred at the workshop.

Manual on integrated fall armyworm management

Manual on integrated fall armyworm management
This manual is completed guide for maize farmers to fight fall armyworm (FAW). It composed of the updated information to manage FAW in the fields including identification of FAW, importance of FAW scouting and monitoring and how to do systematic scouting in the fields, roles of beneficial insects, low cost and affordable cultural practices, recommended insecticides by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and safe uses of pesticides. It is dedicated to FAW infested maize farmers and extension personnel from Department of Agriculture, Myanmar.

Say NO to food waste!

Say NO to food waste!
Food waste is a critical issue in any household. The main objective of this guide is to support households in understanding what is needed to be done in order to reduce food waste at home. This is seen through proper storage methods for each food category, how to reuse leftovers seen through numerous recipes, the proper food portion, and understanding date labels. This guide has also included a section on how to properly care for household livestock and poultry, and two additional sections, one discussing nutrition and the healthy eating plate and another discussing food processing at home and some recipes for different products.

Progress towards development of the progressive management pathway for improving aquaculture biosecurity (PMP/AB): Highlights of 2019 activities

Progress towards development of the progressive management pathway for improving aquaculture biosecurity (PMP/AB): Highlights of 2019 activities
This report highlights the accomplishments of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) consultations and round-table discussions on the PMP/AB that were held during 2019. These include the following: (i) the Second Multi-Stakeholder Consultation on the Progressive Management Pathway for Improving Aquaculture Biosecurity (PMP/AB2) (29–31 January 2019); (ii) the Progressive Management Pathway for Improving Aquaculture Biosecurity (PMP/AB): First Technical Working Group Meeting (TWG1) (20–22 March 2019); and (iii) the Roundtable Discussions on Aquaculture Biosecurity (22–26 July 2019). It reports on the progress made towards formulating, planning and developing implementation mechanisms for the PMP/AB, based on the comments and recommendations provided by the wide range of stakeholders and experts who participated in these events. In August 2019, the Tenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) Sub-Committee on Aquaculture, held in Trondheim, Norway endorsed the PMP/AB and the development of a multidonor-assisted, long-term aquaculture biosecurity component of an aquaculture programme, including its five pillars. Therefore, the FAO, through its Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, now has a mandate for the further development and implementation of the PMP/AB. Future activities include the establishment of an official Technical Working Group (TWG) that will drive the further development of the technical aspects of the PMP/AB, wider consensus building, initial application (pilot testing) and refinement of the PMP/AB tools, and resource mobilization for the aquaculture biosecurity programme. Guidance documents and resources for advocacy and training on the PMP/AB are currently in development to facilitate adoption at the national level.

Country Gender Assessment of Agriculture and the Rural Sector in Vanuatu

Country Gender Assessment of Agriculture and the Rural Sector in Vanuatu
The objective of the Assessment is to analyse the agriculture and rural sectors from a gender perspective at the macro level (policy), meso level (institutional) and micro level (community and household). The Assessment seeks to identify gender inequalities in access to critical productive resources, assets, services and opportunities. The assessment looks at the priorities, needs and constraints of both women and men in agricultural and rural communities, and the gaps that exist in responding to these issues. It also provides recommendations and guidance to promote gender sensitivity in future programmes and projects, and identifies possible partners for gender-related activities. This Assessment is also intended to raise awareness about gender issues among policy-makers, FAO officers, NGOs and community-based organizations in Vanuatu. It provides background and gender-related information, and can be used as a tool to mainstream gender perspectives in future policies, projects and programmes in ways that empower rural women.

The State of Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries 2020

The State of Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries 2020
This third edition of the State of Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries provides a comprehensive overview of the status of fisheries in the region, looking at their main features and trends, in order to better inform their management and better examine current and future challenges that they will face in the near future. The aim of this report is to produce a document that could provide useful analysis and direction for decision-making and future action. In this respect, this publication also represents a convenient source of information for the FAO Committee on Fisheries and offers a practical complement to the data provided in the State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture published by the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. This volume includes seven chapters divided into two sections: a first part on the status and trends of different aspects of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries, including fleet, catches, socio-economic variables and bycatch, and a second part that focuses on the management of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries, including an overview on small-scale fisheries. This report is based to a large extent on the most up-to-date data available submitted by GFCM contracting and cooperating non-contracting parties, including information on stock status, national catches, fleet and socio-economic information up to 2018. It is also complemented with information from other sources.

Silvopastoral Systems and their Contribution to Improved Resource Use and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): Evidence from Latin America

Silvopastoral Systems and their Contribution to Improved Resource Use and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): Evidence from Latin America
This document represents a joint effort between two action networks of the Global Agenda: (i) Closing the Efficiency Gap and (ii) the Global Network on Silvopastoral Systems. A framework for evaluating natural resource use efficiency is applied to a variety of silvopastoral production models to determine productivity and their socio-economic and environmental benefits. It presents an overview of SPS, their main characteristics and advantages regarding production and benefits for the environment and climate, and their contribution to the SDGs, describing the results of ten case studies of adoption of SPS in diverse contexts in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina, with a focus on land productivity, meat and milk production, and economic performance at the farm level. Based on the findings, a number of policy recommendations are made with a view to scaling-up and promoting SPS in Latin America and other regions.

Good beekeeping practices: Practical manual on how to identify and control the main diseases of the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

Good beekeeping practices: Practical manual on how to identify and control the main diseases of the honeybee (Apis mellifera)
This is a practical tool to help beekeepers, veterinarians and beekeeping advisory services to properly identify main honeybee diseases and to take the most appropriate actions in the apiary to control and/or prevent disease outbreaks. This publication follows the TECA publication Main bee diseases: good beekeeping practices (2018) which provided a more general overview of good beekeeping practices for bee diseases. This manual is a unique publication because, through its presentation of practical information, simple visuals, and understandable content, it helps beekeepers to correctly identify main honeybee diseases in a timely manner. More specifically, the manual creatively illustrates actions which facilitate the identification of disease symptoms. It also presents a comprehensive list of good beekeeping practices to adopt in the apiary as well as biosafety measures to reduce the risk of the introduction and the spread of main honeybee diseases. The manual’s overall objective is ultimately to support a more sustainable beekeeping sector.

A Health Equity Approach to Obesity Efforts

release date: Dec 05, 2019
A Health Equity Approach to Obesity Efforts
The obesity crisis in the United States disproportionately affects some demographic groups more than others. Contextual influences on obesity are complex and include an individual's weight-related behaviors and outcomes, the intermediate variables that influence these behaviors and outcomes, and broader, upstream historical, social, economic, physical, and policy contexts. The National Academies convened a workshop on April 1, 2019 to explore the history of health equity issues in demographic groups that have above-average obesity risk and to consider principles and approaches to address these issues as part of obesity prevention and treatment efforts. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Report of the forty-third session of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM)

Report of the forty-third session of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM)
The forty-third session of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) and the tenth session of the Committee on Administration and Finance were attended by delegates of 19 contracting parties, as well as of three cooperating non-contracting parties and two non-contracting parties. Representatives from 13 intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and its regional projects, as well as the Bureaus of the Commission and its subsidiary bodies, were also in attendance. During the session, progress in activities related to fisheries, aquaculture, compliance and other strategic activities was reviewed. Moreover, the outcomes of the second GFCM performance review were commented. In relation to the management of fisheries and aquaculture in the GFCM area of application, eight binding recommendations were adopted, dealing with the following issues: the use of anchored fish aggregating devices in common dolphinfish fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea, information on access agreements in the GFCM area of application, the establishment of a list of vessels presumed to have carried out illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in the GFCM area of application, the sustainable exploitation of blackspot seabream in the Alboran Sea and red coral in the Mediterranean Sea, multiannual management plans for turbot fisheries in the Black Sea and sustainable demersal fisheries in the Adriatic Sea, and management measures for sustainable trawl fisheries targeting giant red shrimp and blue and red shrimp in the Strait of Sicily. Furthermore, the Commission discussed issues related to the mandate of the GFCM Executive Secretary.

Land Degradation Neutrality in Small Island Developing States

Land Degradation Neutrality in Small Island Developing States
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are continuously under the threat from the adverse effects of climate change and land degradation impacts. Land degradation directly increases CO2 emissions, contributing to climate change and vice versa. The LDN Target Setting Programme (TSP) of the UNCCD has substantially contributed to land degradation receiving the policy attention and securing political commitments for addressing the obvious and immediate threats of climate change and natural disasters to SIDS. It has strengthened the availability and accessibility of data for assessing land degradation and enabled SIDS to set specific measurable science-based targets. LDN provides the framework for the sustainable development of human settlements in SIDS through policy, planning, design and regulatory instruments.

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fisheries Sustainability: strengthening the science-policy nexus

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fisheries Sustainability: strengthening the science-policy nexus
The International Symposium on Fisheries Sustainability: strengthening the science-policy nexus was held to support the development of a new vision for more sustainable and socially just fisheries, and more resilient to the challenges of the twenty-first century. The event managed to gather an incredibly diverse group of participants from different sectors and regions around the world. Moreover, a set of recommendations emerged from the sessions’ discussions, that will help improve the sustainability of capture fisheries and progress towards the different targets and objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Field guide for hill land reclamation and water management

Field guide for hill land reclamation and water management
Estimates indicate that around 20-25 percent of the active population of Lebanon derives at least part of its livelihoods from agriculture. Nevertheless, the majority of farmers live below the upper poverty line of 4 USD per day. The enhancement of food security, rural development and sustainable resources management are, thus, imperative and they are targeted as key priorities. In order to bring effective improvements at field level, however, the joint efforts of all stakeholders are required, from decision-makers to agricultural practitioners. The current Field Guide has been prepared as a practical and technical tool that can well respond to the current challenges in land reclamation for soil and water management and, ultimately, support final beneficiaries and agricultural agents through the provision of clear indicators and potential costs. The Guide, thus, should be considered not simply as a compendium of land reclamation and water management practices, but also as a manual for implementers and specialists. The Guide provides a complete set of instructions to implement an extensive range of land reclamation and water management solutions to achieve optimal employment of resources, and it also takes in due consideration the constraint represented by the availability of resources for farmers willing to improve their practices. The illustrated techniques are presented together with realistic estimates of required manual work, labor employment and financial costs, for a correct evaluation based on local and individual needs and priorities and the subsequent direct implementation.

FAO Guide to Ranking Food Safety Risks at the National Level

FAO Guide to Ranking Food Safety Risks at the National Level
The objective of this guidance is to provide direction to decision-makers on how to start ranking the public health risk posed by foodborne hazards and/or foods in their countries. The primary focus is microbial and chemical hazards in foods, but the overall approach could be used for any hazard. This guidance was developed with a wide audience in mind, including but not limited to microbiologists, toxicologists, chemists, environmental health scientists, public health epidemiologists, risk analysts, risk managers, and policy makers. Political will and a strong commitment to modernize food safety are key to the successful development and implementation of any risk ranking effort at the country level.

Water Accounting in the Litani River Basin

Water Accounting in the Litani River Basin
This report provides the water accounting study for Litani River basin in Lebanon carried out by IHE Delft using the Water Productivity open data portal (WaPOR) of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The Litani River basin is one of the key river basins in Lebanon and it is experiencing water scarcity with annual renewable water resources being 606.9 mm3/yr. With an estimated population of 375 000 in 2010 and doubled by 2016 due to the Syrian refugee crisis, the total per capita water availability is around 800 m3/cap/yr indicating water shortage. Increasing challenges such as growing population, climate change, groundwater over-exploitation and inter-basin transfers have put the available water resources in the basin under stress. The completeness and quality of the hydro-meteorological records are insufficient to draw an appropriate picture of the water resources conditions. However, the Water Accounting Plus (WA+) system designed by IHE Delft with its partners FAO and IWMI has been applied to gain full insights into the state of the water resources in the basin for the period 2010 to 2016. The WA+ framework is a reporting mechanism for water flows, fluxes and stocks that are summarized by means of WA+ sheets.

Near East and North Africa Regional Synthesis for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture

Near East and North Africa Regional Synthesis for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture
This report summarizes the state of biodiversity for food and agriculture in Near East and North Africa based on the information provided in country reports submitted to FAO as part of the reporting process for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture.

Food systems at risk

Food systems at risk
The way food systems have evolved over past decades means that they now face major risks, which in turn threaten the future of food systems themselves. Food systems have seriously contributed to climate change, environmental destruction, overexploitation of natural resources and pollution of air, water and soils. Despite the global average improvement in calorie production and major development of the food and agricultural product markets, huge inequalities in food access and repartition of the added value have emerged, leading to new serious nutritional and social problems. Based on a review of the most recent scientific knowledge, this report emphasizes Low-Income and Lower Middle-Income countries where the population faces greater challenges than elsewhere. Different threats are adding up and there are few options to adapt or mitigate these combinations of risks. This is a call for all those - businesses, policy makers, consumers, funding agencies - who are engaged in food systems transformations to bear in mind their systemic aspects and their multiple outcomes and risks in order to be able to fashion more sustainable and equitable food systems. This report was prepared and coordinated by the Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), and is a joint production with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the European Commission’s Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development (DG DEVCO). The scientific report hereunder takes stock of the current and future risks and challenges as regards to food systems.

Food loss and waste and value chains

Food loss and waste and value chains
Food Loss and Waste and Food Value Chains - Learning Guide is a guide designed for students (aged 12-15) in secondary schools with the objective of raising awareness on the topics of food value chains, food loss and waste, and nutrition. This is one of two books, the other is dedicated to teachers. This guide helps the students in linking the three topics learned with the activities and content in the guide.

Water use in livestock production systems and supply chains. Guidelines for assessment

Water use in livestock production systems and supply chains. Guidelines for assessment
The Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for Water Use Assessment, composed by 30 international experts, has developed guidelines on water footprinting for livestock supply chains. The mandate of the Water TAG was to provide recommendations to monitor the environmental performance of feed and livestock supply chains over time so that progress towards improvement targets can be measured; apply the guidelines for feed and water demand of small ruminants, poultry, large ruminants and pig supply chains; build on and go beyond the existing FAO LEAP guidelines; and pursue alignment with relevant International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards, specifically ISO 14040, ISO 14044 (ISO, 2006b and 2006a) and ISO 14046 (ISO, 2014). The guidelines on water use assessment include the impact assessment: the assessment of the environmental performance related to water use of a livestock-related system by assessing potential environmental impacts of blue water consumption following the water scarcity footprint according to the framework provided by ISO 14046 (ISO, 2014); and the assessment of the system’s productivity of green and blue water. The guidelines are thus intended to support the optimization of use of water resources and the identification of opportunities to decrease the potential impacts of water use in livestock production. The Water TAG guidance is relevant for livestock production systems, including feed production from croplands and grasslands, and production and processing of livestock products (cradle-to-gate). It addresses all livestock production systems and livestock species considered in existing LEAP animal guidelines: poultry, pig, small ruminant and large ruminant supply chains.

FAO Yearbook. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics 2017/FAO annuaire. Statistiques des pêches et de l'aquaculture 2017/FAO anuario. Estadísticas de pesca y acuicultura 2017

FAO Yearbook. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics 2017/FAO annuaire. Statistiques des pêches et de l'aquaculture 2017/FAO anuario. Estadísticas de pesca y acuicultura 2017
The FAO Yearbook of fishery and aquaculture statistics is a compilation of statistical data on capture fisheries and aquaculture production, employment, commodities production and trade, apparent fish consumption and fishing fleets. It is structured into a booklet (containing summary tables, notes on major trends, concepts, classifications and a map of FAO major fishing areas) and a USB card presenting the full yearbook package with the complete set of statistical tables. L’Annuaire des statistiques des pêches et de l’aquaculture de la FAO est une compilation de données statistiques sur les captures, la production de l’aquaculture, l’emploi, la production et le commerce des produits halieutiques, les bilans alimentaires et les flottes. L’Annuaire est composé d’un fascicule (contenant des tableaux résumés, des notes sur les tendances principales, une description des concepts et des classements, ainsi qu’une carte des principales zones de pêche de la FAO) et d’une clé USB incluant la collection complète des tableaux statistiques de l’Annuaire. El Anuario de estadísticas de pesca y acuicultura de la FAO es una compilación de datos estadísticos sobre las capturas, la producción de acuicultura, el empleo, la producción y el comercio de los productos pesqueros, las hojas de balance de alimentos y las flotas. El Anuario se compone de un cuadernillo (con cuadros resúmenes, notas sobre las tendencias principales, conceptos básicos y clasificaciones, así como un mapa de las principales zonas de pesca de la FAO) y de una tarjeta USB que incluye toda el conjunto completo de los cuadros estadísticos del Anuario.

The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
The conservation, sustainable use and development of aquatic genetic resources (AqGR) is critical to the future supply of fish. The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture is the first ever global assessment of these resources, with the scope of this first Report being limited to cultured AqGR and their wild relatives, within national jurisdiction. The Report draws on 92 reports from FAO member countries and five specially commissioned thematic background studies. The reporting countries are responsible for 96 percent of global aquaculture production. The Report sets the context with a review of the state of world’s aquaculture and fisheries and includes overviews of the uses and exchanges of AqGR, the drivers and trends impacting AqGR and the extent of ex situ and in situ conservation efforts. The Report also investigates the roles of stakeholders in AqGR and the levels of activity in research, education, training and extension, and reviews national policies and the levels of regional and international cooperation on AqGR. Finally, needs and challenges are assessed in the context of the findings from the data collected from the countries. The Report represents a snapshot of the present status of AqGR and forms a valuable technical reference document, particularly where it presents standardized key terminology and concepts.
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