New Release Books by Niklas Elert

Niklas Elert is the author of Institutional Reform for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (2020), The Entrepreneurial Society (2020), Entrepreneurship and Institutions (2017), Entrepreneurship Prompts Institutional Change in Developing Economies (2020) and other 6 books.

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Institutional Reform for Innovation and Entrepreneurship

release date: Oct 08, 2020
Institutional Reform for Innovation and Entrepreneurship
The authors of this book advise the economies of the European Union to become more entrepreneurial in promoting innovation and economic growth. The authors propose a reform strategy with respect to several aspects to achieve this goal. Starting with the rule of law and the protection of property rights; the tax system; the authors deal with regulations governing savings, capital and finance, and the organization of labor markets and social insurance systems. Framework strategies related to the regulations governing goods and service markets, bankruptcy and insolvency are also put forward. A core understanding and future path is also provided towards R&D, commercialization and knowledge spillovers; human capital investments; and informal institutions. This work was published by Saint Philip Street Press pursuant to a Creative Commons license permitting commercial use. All rights not granted by the work''s license are retained by the author or authors.

The Entrepreneurial Society

release date: Oct 08, 2020
The Entrepreneurial Society
This open access book builds on the European Union''s (EU) Horizon 2020 project ''Financial and Institutional Reforms for an Entrepreneurial Society'' (FIRES). The authors outline how Europe can move towards more inclusive, innovative and sustainable growth through reforms that will rekindle its entrepreneurial spirit. Based on decades of research and countless discussions with stakeholders, the book also features the FIRES project''s full list of policy interventions and institutional reforms that can help policymakers make that agenda a reality. This work was published by Saint Philip Street Press pursuant to a Creative Commons license permitting commercial use. All rights not granted by the work''s license are retained by the author or authors.

Entrepreneurship and Institutions

release date: Jul 24, 2017
Entrepreneurship and Institutions
Entrepreneurship and Institutions: A Bidirectional Relationship argues that the view that institutions determine the extent to which entrepreneurial activity is productive is only part of the story. Rather, causality is bidirectional, in that entrepreneurship is also, for better or for worse, one of the main drivers of institutional change.

Entrepreneurship Prompts Institutional Change in Developing Economies

release date: Jan 01, 2020
Entrepreneurship Prompts Institutional Change in Developing Economies
Entrepreneurship plays a pivotal role for institutional change and economic development in transition and developing economies. Formal and informal institutions in such countries are often sub-par, but rather than being constrained by them, entrepreneurship can often affect institutions and contribute to their evolution. We highlight three entrepreneurial responses to the institutional status quo: an abiding response, an altering response, and an evasive response. Each response can be either welfare-enhancing or welfare-reducing; more importantly, each response can affect the institutional framework of the society in which it occurs. Better knowledge of entrepreneurial responses to institutions and the context in which they occur offers a promising avenue for future research and a potential way of sustaining lasting institutional change and economic development.

When Less is More

release date: Jan 01, 2020
When Less is More
Entrepreneurship research suggests that entrepreneurship education and training can bridge the gender gap in entrepreneurship, but little empirical research exists assessing the validity and impact of such initiatives. We examine a large government-sponsored entrepreneurship education program aimed at university students in Sweden. While a pre-study indicates that longer university courses are associated with short-term outcomes such as increased self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, results from a more comprehensive study using a pre-post design suggest little effect from these extensive courses on long-term outcomes such as new venture creation and entrepreneurial income. In contrast, we do find positive effects on these long-term outcomes from more limited but more specific training interventions, especially for women. Our study suggests that less extensive but more tailored interventions can be more beneficial than longer or more extensive interventions in promoting entrepreneurship in general, and entrepreneurship of underrepresented groups in particular. We discuss implications for theory, education, and policy.

Gender and Climate Action

release date: Jan 01, 2020
Gender and Climate Action
It is well-known that men and women differ in their views regarding the severity of climate change, but do they also differ in their support for climate policy and in undertaking climate action? Previous evidence on this question is inconsistent, but unique survey data from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency enable us to answer it in the affirmative. Swedish women worry more about climate change and perceive it to be a bigger threat than men do. Furthermore, women report a greater support than men for policies to mitigate climate change through political interventions, and also undertake more voluntary actions to achieve this goal. More generally, the results suggest that women and men differ in their willingness to alter behavior and support policy to help mitigate other large scale crises, such as global pandemics.

Intrapreneurship and Trust

release date: Jan 01, 2019
Intrapreneurship and Trust
Trust and entrepreneurship are seen as key ingredients of long-term prosperity. However, it is not clear how these two are related. Part of the confusion can be traced back to the measurement of entrepreneurship, biased towards independent entrepreneurship (self-employed and new firms), and excluding entrepreneurship within established organizations. We shed new light on the relationship between trust and entrepreneurship, by proposing two mechanisms relating trust to entrepreneurship by employees, so-called intrapreneurship. We hypothesize that generalized trust influences the prevalence of intrapreneurship in an economy, and the allocation of entrepreneurial talents between independent entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, through two mechanisms. First, generalized trust may substitute for complete contracts as a means of organizing labor in society, enabling a level of job autonomy in organizations necessary for intrapreneurship to flourish. Second, by way of its influence on the size and scope of the welfare state, generalized trust may increase the benefits of employment relative to self-employment, causing entrepreneurial individuals to elect to be intrapreneurs rather than independent entrepreneurs. Using a novel dataset, we find support for these hypotheses in a cross-country regression model covering the time period 2011-2017.

Collaborative Innovation Blocs and Antifragility

release date: Jan 01, 2019
Collaborative Innovation Blocs and Antifragility
We present the theory of the collaborative innovation bloc (CIB), an evolving system of innovation within which activity takes place over time. We show how the application of the CIB perspective can help make institutional and evolutionary economics more concrete, relevant, and persuasive, especially regarding policy prescriptions. Such policy actions should strive to improve the antifragility of CIBs and the economic system as a whole, thus enabling individual CIBs and the broader economic system to thrive when faced with macroeconomic shocks. With this in mind, we develop heuristics to evaluate antifragility at the micro, meso, and macro levels before identifying a set of institutional areas where reform can be undertaken to improve antifragility.

Gender Differences in Optimism

release date: Jan 01, 2019
Gender Differences in Optimism
This paper examines gender differences in optimism about the economy. We measure optimism using Swedish survey data in which respondents stated their beliefs about the country''s future economic situation. We argue that this measure of optimism is preferable to common measurements in the literature since it avoids confounding individuals'' economic situation with their perception of the future and it can be compared to economic indicators. In line with previous research, we find that men are more optimistic than women; however, men are also more prone to be wrong in their beliefs about the future economic situation. Furthermore, in sharp economic downturns, the gender differences in optimism disappear. This convergence in beliefs can be explained by the amount of available information on the economy.

Industrial Variation of High-growth Firms

release date: Jan 01, 2010
Industrial Variation of High-growth Firms
Previous examinations of the literature suggests that high-growth firms (HGFs) exist in all or most industries, are not overrepresented in high-tech, and if anything appear to be slightly overrepresented in services. In an updated overview, we find that more recent studies, employing better statistical methods, show a clear link between technological sophistication and HGFs. In a tobit model we examine what factors explain the presence of HGFs across 5-digit-NACE-industries in Sweden 1997-2005. We find that technological sophistication is crucial for the prevalence of HGFs in an industry, particularly in services. These results are in line with both current research and previous research concerning Sweden. We conclude that innovation is crucial for firm growth.
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